We present instance arguments: an alternative to type classes and related features in the dependently typed, purely functional programming language/proof assistant Agda. They are a new, general type of function arguments, resolved from call-site scope in a type-directed way. The mechanism is inspired by both Scala’s implicits and Agda’s existing implicit arguments, but differs from both in important ways. [..] Unlike Scala, functions taking our new arguments are first-class citizens and can be abstracted over and manipulated in standard ways. Compared to other proposals, we avoid the pitfall of introducing a separate type-level computational model through the instance search mechanism. All values in scope are automatically candidates for instance resolution. A final novelty of our approach is that existing Agda libraries using records gain the benefits of type classes without any modification.